Yet, general complete erythrocyte mass is increased in athletes, especially those that practice at excessive altitude . This is partially as a result of a dose-dependent effect of O2 on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated erythropoietin production as well as upregulation of erythropoietin receptors, iron transporters, and transferrins . Multiple studies have proven that hematopoiesis is enhanced instantly following exercise .
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However, a lot of the published info is limited to groups of participants that have all been injured or groups of participants comprised totally of athletes (eg, football players, ballet dancers). Many observational research have examined the relation between physical exercise and steady measures of bone mineral density corresponding to bone mineral content material values in grams, bone density values in g/cm2, and cortical bone area measures in cm2 (see evaluation ). However, no observational studies in the literature search met the systematic evaluation standards of predicting a low bone mineral density as a dichotomous consequence.
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